(S) A study of the medieval roots of the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, and the Catholic counter-reformation, and their contribution to the beginnings of the early modern period of European history. The principle focus is the complex relationship between Renaissance humanism and Reformation religious thought and the enduring social and cultural influence of the two movements on western civilization. Prerequisite: RLGN 211 or 231, or permission of instructor. The course may cross-list with HIST 451. (Odd Years Only).